By this point in my career, I’ve been on both sides of this scenario; I’ve written and defended 3 theses (undergraduate, M.Sc., and Ph.D.) and I’ve evaluated a number of theses and presentations from my own students and those from other labs. Here’s my 2 cents on common problems that I’ve experienced, or have heard about from others. I’m focusing on issues that can occur after the thesis has been written and submitted to the committee members up to and including the oral defense of the thesis.
Challenges for the Student
- Figures in the thesis aren’t as good or robust as those used in the presentation.
I’ve been in several defenses where many concepts that were challenging to figure out while reading the written thesis have been cleared up by the inclusion of additional figures in the presentation. It would be great if students just included these additional figures from the get-go as this would really improve the experience of the reader.
2. Figure and Table captions are not sufficient.
I always recommend to students that figures and tables should be able to stand on their own without any help from the written text of the thesis. This can be achieved by including an appropriate level of detail in your captions that explains what the reader is seeing as well as making any jargon and acronyms clear.
3. Interpreting questions or concerns as a personal attack.
It is very hard not to take concerns or questions about your writing, data, or presentation personally. While you should definitely not be a doormat, you should be respectful and thoughtful when receiving the feedback and opinions of your committee members.
4. Lack of knowledge on the basic theories, techniques, or information of your field.
Often committee members will ask what we see as very basic questions about your project and your field of study. If you mention something in your thesis or presentation, expect to answer questions about that content. Be sure that your focus has not narrowed so much that you neglect to explore and understand the theory or basic tenets of your research area. For example, if you are showing images of Western blots, I will likely ask you to explain the theory of how this technique works. It looks very bad if you can’t explain technique that is in your thesis.
5. Absent or inappropriate use of statistical analyses.
I’m not a statistical wizard, but even my Spidey senses start tingling when I can’t understand why you’ve chosen particular approaches, whether they are appropriate, and what they are telling you about your data.
Challenges for Examiners
- This is not the time to retaliate for a slight that occurred in 1999 from another faculty member on the committee.
Focus on the student’s work and accomplishments and let it go. Stop being so petty and giving professionals a bad reputation.
2. Come prepared and be on time.
Respect the time and efforts of the student and other committee members. Come with useful and insightful questions and suggestions.
3. Clearly communicate the student’s strengths and accomplishments that impressed you.
Be kind and sincere in your praise. A thesis degree is a tough slog and we don’t compliment our students enough and should celebrate their successes.
4. It isn’t about you.
Check your ego at the door. We all know that you are smart. You don’t need to convince us of this by your preambles to a question, your expositions on a particular theory, and your recently published work. Keep the focus on the student where it belongs.
What other insights can others offer about the thesis and defense experience? Leave your answer in the comments!