Month: September 2015

DoctorAl Digest 7

This list by John Dupuis is a great summary of why as a scientist I will not be voting Conservative in the upcoming federal election.

An effective piece by Kausik Datta pointing out some authoring issues with ResearchGate and the algorithms used.

A great piece by Leigh Honeywell on making bingo cards to call out cluelessness about the challenges faced by women in tech.

The hottest tool in biotechnology these days is CRISPRs. A great blog post on the ways that phages have evolved to deal with the CRISPRs used as bacterial defense over at Eat, Read, Science.

Project Management for Scientists

project management notesToday’s topic in my group lab meeting is project management. It took me a long time as a scientist to believe that research projects could actually be managed. I think that I felt this way given the uncertain nature of scientific research; you never know if an experiment will actually work and you often can’t predict in which direction the research will go next. I’ve always been an organized person and it turns out that managing a research project isn’t all that different from other projects that you do in your day to day life such as go grocery shopping, clean out the garage, and plant a vegetable garden. Once I started thinking about science in the same way it’s like a light bulb went on.

I don’t recall ever having explicit conversations with my research mentors and supervisors about project management. That may be because I was fairly productive and am a planner by nature, but these are skills that don’t naturally come to everyone and that can be learned and improved over time. As a purely ridiculous example, I explicitly tell students that they should do something else with their time while PCR is running or they are incubating a sample for an hour. I’d like to think that they know this, but I have heard stories from colleagues, of students who will literally sit there for the duration of the incubation thereby wasting precious time that they could have used doing anything else. It’s like the science equivalent of watching paint dry.

Here are some thoughts on how I approach project management in laboratory science:

1) My first step is to define the project clearly and to determine what success looks like. If you skip this step you’ll never know when the project is done, nor will you know if you did it well. You need to identify the full scope of the work, what resources you’ll need (reagents, people, literature, etc.), and the time that you have available to do it in. Thinking about these limitations up front will decrease the amount of frustration that you and others experience later. At the same time, there is room for flexibility, which I will talk about later.

2) My next step is to think about the major milestones that need to be completed in order for the project to be finished. For even the most basic science experiment this will include things like generation of hypotheses and predictions, experimental design, ordering of reagents, allocation of people, doing the experiments, data collection and analyses, data presentation and communication (i.e. making figures, tables, diagrams, etc.), and generating a manuscript, poster, or talk to communicate your findings. That’s a lot of stuff to complete in order to successfully finish your project! One of the major things that I struggle with is maintaining an interest in projects that span several years of work; I often get bored part way through and struggle with staying motivated to finish.

3) Up next is thinking about the flow of tasks and their relationships to one another in your project. I like to think of the major milestones in a project as parts of a puzzle that need to be put together. When I build puzzles, I always start with the edge pieces first, and then work my way in; this means that the connection of some pieces requires the presence of other pieces first. With your project you want to determine whether some of your milestones are interconnected and have to happen sequentially, or whether some of your milestones are independent and could be worked on in parallel at the same time. For example, if you wanted to clone a particular gene in your critter of interest, you would first want to obtain the DNA sequence from a molecular database, you’d then design and order gene specific primers, you’d then perform PCR with your primers, purify your amplified DNA via gel electrophoresis and a gel extraction kit, clone your DNA product into a plasmid, and sequence the plasmid to ensure that the DNA sequence matched the one in the database. These tasks are sequential and one needs to happen before you move on to the next. Other projects have milestones that could be completed at the same time because one doesn’t depend on the completion of the other. This is also the time to identify what could go wrong. Where might your project go off the rails? Can you come up with a back-up plan to get around the problem should it arise? Can you plan ahead to avoid the problem? Can you ask for help?

4) Now you need to break your project milestones into smaller mini-projects that contain a small number of discrete steps. Ideally, you’d aim to complete a few of the small tasks every day and one of the mini-projects each week in the lab. This will help to keep you motivated as you’ll be able to measure your progress on the project and you will build up lots of little wins and that will keep your mental and emotional state positive.

5) The final step is putting together a timeline for completion. I like to set a deadline that I think is realistic, but I usually add several extra weeks and expect that something will go wrong during the course of the project. I then work backwards from that date when planning my time. I schedule in my major project milestones, my mini-projects, and my smaller tasks at a level of detail that I’m comfortable with. Some projects are tricky and it will be difficult to easily identify all of the mini-projects and small tasks up front. Do your best and don’t get off target because that can lead to project creep where the scope of the project balloons out and doesn’t resemble the scope of what you originally set out to do. You need to be flexible because plans can sometimes change mid-project, but head back up to what you defined in Step 1 if you feel that your project is getting out of control. You’ll often find that you reimagined the scope of the project without really thinking things through because you got excited by a neat result or finding. Think extra hard about whether you really want to commit to expanding the scope or redefining the success of your project before you leap in! That being said, there will be times when you need to retool your plans and timeline due to the unpredictability of lab research, but hopefully because you’ve identified the possible trouble spots in advance (Step 3) this will be minimal.

6) Execute your project management plan. Enter specific tasks and mini-projects in your daily and weekly calendar and set deadlines for your project milestones.

Some great resources:

If you need help with bigger project management concepts, Melanie Nelson’s blog Beyond Managing is great!

If you find that scheduling, prioritizing, and keeping up with your to-do list is a challenge, I recommend reading David Allen’s book “Getting Things Done” . It will change your life – I kid you not!

What tips and resources do you give to your trainees in order to help them manage their research projects?

DoctorAl Digest 6

Quite a bit of excitement for me this week as I participated in my first radio interview with the local CBC station on challenges faced by women in science. I posted on my preparation for the interview here . The link to the interview with myself, Anne Wilson, and the researcher who was the driving force for the display, Eden Hennessey is here.

A very informative and interesting article on the phenomenon of “plant blindness” from the guardian. Despite the fact that I’m a plant biologist, I’m as guilty of having this disease as the next person.

A cool gallery of contenders for the Agar Art contest being run by the American Society for Microbiology. Some of the images are quite stunning!

Stephen Heard has a neat post up on his blog about “The one thing I teach that nobody ever forgets. Perhaps as teachers this is worth thinking about?

My first media interview as a scientist

Today I did my first interview with a large media organization. While I had previously done interviews with some campus print media outlets this was the first time that I was doing an interview with media that was external to a university. The topic of the interview was the under-representation of women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math). That’s a topic that is very personally and professionally important to me so it was extremely vital that the interview go well. I was therefore very nervous about the interview.

The first hurdle came up this morning when determining what to wear. I wasn’t sure whether the interview was for TV or radio. TV is a visual medium, so rightly or wrongly half of the message that you’re sending will be based on how you look. From previous conversations and photo shoots I’d learned that patterns are bad for TV. Stripes especially look awful and appear unstable when broadcasted. My husband thought that my original shirt made me look washed out and pasty, so I switched to a darker, solid coloured top for the interview. I did my make-up, hair, and accessories as usual and kept things simple. As it turns out it was a radio interview, so a tip for next time will be to clarify this piece of information in advance.

Since I’d never done something like this before I wanted to make sure that I was as prepared as possible, so I did what any reasonable person would do and I researched how to prepare for a media interview using a quick Google search. I’d also previously participated in a media training workshop as a post-doc and more recently as a faculty member at one of Informed Opinion’s excellent workshops facilitated by Sheri Graydon. I quickly learned that it’s important to have 1 key message that you want to convey and to use 3 points or examples to hammer home that key message. I spent about 20 minutes fleshing out my key message and 3 talking points that I’d like to convey during the interview and practicing how I could say them in response to an interviewer’s questions. I think that the interview went very well and was a positive experience. I learned a lot from participating myself and from watching two other people being interviewed for the segment.

Our interviews will be edited down to a 7 minute radio and web segment and will likely to live tomorrow or Monday. I’ll add a link once it gets posted.

I’d be curious to hear from more seasoned interview participants. What are your top tips for a scientist who is speaking to the media for the first time?

Review of the iPad App Fantastical

I’ve had an iPad for several years and have talked before about how I use it in my day to day work as a professor and some of the applications (apps) that I prefer.

In that blog post from last November, I was using the app Week Cal as my calendar of choice. A few months ago there was a software update and a giant black bar of doom started appearing across the screen in the app. At first it was merely annoying and I figured that the next update would solve the problem. Nope. I contacted the company and was told that it was happening because I was using an iPhone app on an iPad. This was stated matter of factly and it was very clear that there was no motivation or desire to fix this particular issue. Based on that interaction I started my search for a new calendar app for iPad.

Originally my goal was to get something for free that would get the job done because I like a good deal. The Apple calendar app is o.k., but I find that entering things in is a bit clunky. I also used an app called Sunrise for a few weeks which was a step up from Apple’s offering, but I still wasn’t really happy. A few quick searches of some of my favourite productivity blogs (Asian Efficiency , LifeHacker yielded an interesting possibility. Many readers on those two sites recommended an app called Fantastical.

First of all I loved the name FastastiCAL because I am all about horrible puns and plays on words. There are two major advantages to this app based on my usage of it for ~2 weeks. The first is the layout of the calendar. The top half of the screen shows you a weekly view and by pulling down on this panel you can expand it to fill the screen. The bottom half is filled by two panels; the one of the left shows you a rolling log of the events that you have coming up or recently completed, and the right panel is a monthly view. The second major advantage is that entering events is a breeze because you can type them in sentence form and have the event appear in your calendar. For example, if I typed in “Meet Carla for lunch at McDonald’s on Sept. 29” an appointment with Carla from 12-1 p.m. at McDonald’s would appear on my calendar for Sept. 29th. This saves me a ton of time and also makes entering recurring appointments very simple. An added bonus that I really appreciate is that you can move around in your calendar when adding events so you can avoid double booking yourself, or can look up what you already have planned for a particular day. There is also the ability to add events to your calendar verbally, but I haven’t tried that option yet.

One caveat is that I don’t use Outlook for my calendar scheduling, so I’m not sure if the app is compatible with that program. I do believe that it interfaces with Google though.

The other drawback is that the app isn’t cheap compared to other calendars that are free or a few dollars to purchase, however based on my use of the app over the past few weeks it’s been worth every penny for me. Fantastical also comes for iPhone and I may look at putting it on that device in the upcoming weeks.

DoctorAl Digest 5

As a person with a hearing impairment this article talking about exploring the positive effects of having a hearing disability was very interesting. I strongly agree with the finding that having a hearing impairment leads to increased empathy for others as this has been my personal experience as I outlined in a previous blog post.

Based on Jeremy’s book review over at the Dynamic Ecology blog I`ve put this book on reserve at our university library. I’ve always been interested in how movies hire and use scientific consultants.

Ed Yong asks a question important to Moms everywhere. Foetal cells hide out in Mum`s body, but what do they do?

A weird article about giant fruit contests and using DNA to ensure that the winner is confirmed as belonging to a particular variety of tomato.

A very cool story of how parasitized bees may self-medicate with nectar.

Flexibility in Course Selection During Undergraduate Degrees

I completed my undergraduate degree in Biology from 1994 to 1998. One of the things that I really appreciated about my degree program at the time was the number of electives that I was able to take during the course of the degree. In this post I’m defining electives as courses that you take that are outside of your department and likely outside of your faculty. Our first year curriculum was very structured, but after we declared a major in second year there was space for electives during the rest of the degree. I had mistakenly assumed that this was the norm, but talking with colleagues in a faculty meeting last week revealed many different experiences with the number of electives taken in their degrees.

During my undergrad I took elective courses in Archaeology, Classics (Greek and Roman Civilization), English, and Ethics alongside my courses in Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Math. I viewed the courses that I took through the Faculty of Arts as a welcome break from the school of thought in the Faculty of Science. I was able to look at the world through different lenses and I think that this was valuable. I think that this experience has made me a better researcher and teacher and has given me a broader appreciation of what a university as a whole has to offer students.

My perception is that the academic curriculum of our students is becoming more streamlined and constrained in the name of efficiency of completing the degree within the required time frame. I’ve come to the recent realization that I don’t believe that this is a good thing and that some exposure to other ideologies and ways of teaching and learning is a positive thing.

How much academic freedom did you have during your undergraduate degree? Do you remember a particular non-Science class with fondness?

Education by Twitter: What Following others has taught me

I started my Twitter account in December 2012. I didn’t really have any expectations about what Twitter would do for me at that time; I was simply curious about what all the fuss was about and I stuck my toe in cautiously to give it a try. Some of my colleagues ask me about the utility of Twitter and I think that most academics come at it from the angle of “What can Twitter do for me?” I think that each person’s experience of Twitter is different and that’s pretty valuable.

Surprisingly in the past two and a half years Twitter has taught me a lot. I think that biggest impact is that Twitter has exposed me to voices that I didn’t hear before and a lot of this has to do with my privilege as a cis, heterosexual, white woman. It has been very eye opening to hear and learn about the experiences of people who self-identify or have been classified by people as “other” on Twitter. At the same time, Twitter has allowed me to be a part of communities of women academics and academics with disabilities which has been immensely helpful to my personal and professional growth. The impact of words, links, images, and videos in 140 character snippets has been impressive.

Twitter has made me aware of my own profound ignorance on a wide variety of socially important topics. In my opinion, that benefit has made my investment in Twitter well worth my time.

Science Moms

There have been some great articles on-line this week talking about the realities of being a female and/or Mom in science and technology.

Meg Duffy tackles the logistics of pumping breast milk at work and sending bottles to daycare in today’s post over at Dynamic Ecology . This is a practical post about an important topic that doesn’t get talked about a lot. I give Meg props for making this work. I found that after my kids started daycare we had to switch to formula during the day due to a lack of supports for pumping/breast feeding on my campus. I just wasn’t willing to pump in a nasty bathroom stall and probably would have gotten bizarre looks if I had asked about a lactation room.

An awesome article posted yesterday by Rebecca Schuman in The Chronicle of Higher Education on how Academe Is a Lousy Family Planner. Rebecca has articulated very well how I felt as a graduate student starting a family. Looking back I’m amazed that I was so strong (or naïve) to start my family during that phase of my career. It was tough, but I have no regrets and the timing worked out exceptionally well for me. Start your family when you are ready; do not let the academy dictate your reproductive choices.

Jessica Valenti has an interview in theguardian with Anita Sarkeesian about GamerGate and how it has changed her life. The comments kind of say it all and illustrate the point of the article quite effectively.

I’m also pleased to have taken part in @EdenHennessey’s display that highlights the challenges faced by women in STEM. The #DistractinglySexist exhibit is on display @LaurierLibrary for the next month.